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2008 Nobel Prizes Announcement, List of Nobel laureates (1901-2008)

Nobel Prize Laureates 2008 Announced

List of Nobel laureates (1901-2008)

This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates awarded for their outstanding contributions to humanitarian causes for peace,

work in literature and in the science disciplines for chemistry, medicine and physiology, physics and economics.


1. Physics , 2 .Chemistry

3 Physiology or medicine

4 Literature 5. Peace

6 Economics


1. Physics


1901: Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
1902: Hendrik A. Lorentz / Pieter Zeeman
1903: Henri Becquerel / Pierre Curie / Maria Sklodowska-Curie
1904: Lord Rayleigh
1905: Philipp Lenard
1906: J.J. Thomson
1907: Albert A. Michelson
1908: Gabriel Lippmann
1909: Guglielmo Marconi / Ferdinand Braun
1910: Johannes Diderik van der Waals
1911: Wilhelm Wien
1912: Gustaf Dalén
1913: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
1914: Max von Laue
1915: William Henry Bragg / William Lawrence Bragg
1916: no award
1917: Charles Glover Barkla
1918: Max Planck
1919: Johannes Stark
1920: Charles Edouard Guillaume
1921: Albert Einstein
1922: Niels Bohr
1923: Robert A. Millikan
1924: Manne Siegbahn
1925: James Franck / Gustav Hertz
1926: Jean Baptiste Perrin
1927: Arthur H. Compton / C.T.R. Wilson
1928: Owen Willans Richardson
1929: Louis de Broglie
1930: Venkata Raman
1931: no award
1932: Werner Heisenberg
1933: Erwin Schrödinger / Paul A.M. Dirac
1934: no award
1935: James Chadwick
1936: Victor F. Hess / Carl D. Anderson
1937: Clinton Davisson / George Paget Thomson
1938: Enrico Fermi
1939: Ernest Lawrence
1940: no award
1941: no award
1942: no award
1943: Otto Stern
1944: Isidor Isaac Rabi
1945: Wolfgang Pauli
1946: Percy W. Bridgman
1947: Edward V. Appleton
1948: Patrick M.S. Blackett
1949: Hideki Yukawa
1950: Cecil Powell
1951: John Cockcroft / Ernest T.S. Walton
1952: Felix Bloch / E. M. Purcell
1953: Frits Zernike
1954: Max Born / Walther Bothe
1955: Willis E. Lamb / Polykarp Kusch
1956: William B. Shockley / John Bardeen / Walter H. Brattain
1957: Chen Ning Yang / Tsung-Dao Lee
1958: Pavel A. Cherenkov / Il´ja M. Frank / Igor Y. Tamm
1959: Emilio Segrè / Owen Chamberlain
1960: Donald A. Glaser
1961: Robert Hofstadter / Rudolf Mössbauer
1962: Lev Landau
1963: Eugene Wigner / Maria Goeppert-Mayer / J. Hans D. Jensen
1964: Charles H. Townes / Nicolay G. Basov / Aleksandr M. Prokhorov
1965: Sin-Itiro Tomonaga / Julian Schwinger / Richard P. Feynman
1966: Alfred Kastler
1967: Hans Bethe
1968: Luis Alvarez
1969: Murray Gell-Mann
1970: Hannes Alfvén / Louis Néel
1971: Dennis Gabor
1972: John Bardeen / Leon Neil Cooper / Robert Schrieffer
1973: Leo Esaki / Ivar Giaever / Brian D. Josephson
1974: Martin Ryle / Antony Hewish
1975: Aage N. Bohr / Ben R. Mottelson / James Rainwater
1976: Burton Richter / Samuel C.C. Ting
1977: Philip W. Anderson / Sir Nevill F. Mott / John H. van Vleck
1978: Pyotr Kapitsa / Arno Penzias / Robert Woodrow Wilson
1979: Sheldon Glashow / Abdus Salam / Steven Weinberg
1980: James Cronin / Val Fitch
1981: Nicolaas Bloembergen / Arthur L. Schawlow / Kai M. Siegbahn
1982: Kenneth G. Wilson
1983: Subramanyan Chandrasekhar / William A. Fowler
1984: Carlo Rubbia / Simon van der Meer
1985: Klaus von Klitzing
1986: Ernst Ruska / Gerd Binnig / Heinrich Rohrer
1987: J. Georg Bednorz / K. Alex Müller
1988: Leon M. Lederman / Melvin Schwartz / Jack Steinberger
1989: Norman F. Ramsey / Hans G. Dehmelt / Wolfgang Paul
1990: Jerome I. Friedman / Henry W. Kendall / Richard E. Taylor
1991: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
1992: Georges Charpak
1993: Russell A. Hulse / Joseph H. Taylor, Jr.
1994: Bertram N. Brockhouse / Clifford G. Shull
1995: Martin L. Perl / Frederick Reines
1996: David M. Lee / Douglas D. Osheroff / Robert Coleman Richardson
1997: Steven Chu / Claude Cohen-Tannoudji / William D. Phillips
1998: Robert B. Laughlin / Horst L. Störmer / Daniel C. Tsui
1999: Gerardus 't Hooft / Martinus J.G. Veltman
2000: Zhores I. Alferov / Herbert Kroemer / Jack S. Kilby
2001: Eric A. Cornell / Wolfgang Ketterle / Carl E. Wieman
2002: Raymond Davis, Jr. / Masatoshi Koshiba / Riccardo Giacconi
2003: Alexei A. Abrikosov / Vitaly L. Ginzburg / Anthony J. Leggett
2004: David J. Gross / H. David Politzer / Frank Wilczek
2005: Roy J. Glauber / John L. Hall / Theodor W. Hänsch
2006: John C. Mather / George F. Smoot
2007: Albert Fert / Peter Grünberg
2008: Yoichiro Nambu / Makoto Kobayashi / Toshihide Maskawa



2 .Chemistry

1901: Jacobus H. van 't Hoff
1902: Emil Fischer
1903: Svante Arrhenius
1904: Sir William Ramsay
1905: Adolf von Baeyer
1906: Henri Moissan
1907: Eduard Buchner
1908: Ernest Rutherford
1909: Wilhelm Ostwald
1910: Otto Wallach
1911: Maria Skłodowska-Curie
1912: Victor Grignard / Paul Sabatier
1913: Alfred Werner
1914: Theodore William Richards
1915: Richard Willstätter
1916: no award
1917: no award
1918: Fritz Haber
1919: no award
1920: Walther Nernst
1921: Frederick Soddy
1922: Francis W. Aston
1923: Fritz Pregl
1924: no award
1925: Richard Zsigmondy
1926: The Svedberg
1927: Heinrich Wieland
1928: Adolf Windaus
1929: Arthur Harden / Hans von Euler-Chelpin
1930: Hans Fischer
1931: Carl Bosch / Friedrich Bergius
1932: Irving Langmuir
1933: no award
1934: Harold C. Urey
1935: Frédéric Joliot-Curie / Irène Joliot-Curie
1936: Peter Debye
1937: Norman Haworth / Paul Karrer
1938: Richard Kuhn
1939: Adolf Butenandt / Leopold Ruzicka
1940: no award
1941: no award
1942: no award
1943: George de Hevesy
1944: Otto Hahn
1945: Artturi Virtanen
1946: James B. Sumner / John H. Northrop / Wendell M. Stanley
1947: Sir Robert Robinson
1948: Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius
1949: William F. Giauque
1950: Otto Diels / Kurt Alder
1951: Edwin M. McMillan / Glenn T. Seaborg
1952: Archer J.P. Martin / Richard L.M. Synge
1953: Hermann Staudinger
1954: Linus Pauling
1955: Vincent du Vigneaud
1956: Sir Cyril Hinshelwood / Nikolay Semenov
1957: Lord Todd
1958: Frederick Sanger
1959: Jaroslav Heyrovský
1960: Willard F. Libby
1961: Melvin Calvin
1962: Max F. Perutz / John C. Kendrew
1963: Karl Ziegler / Giulio Natta
1964: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
1965: Robert Burns Woodward
1966: Robert S. Mulliken
1967: Manfred Eigen / Ronald G.W. Norrish / George Porter
1968: Lars Onsager
1969: Derek Barton / Odd Hassel
1970: Luis Leloir
1971: Gerhard Herzberg
1972: Christian Anfinsen / Stanford Moore / William H. Stein
1973: Ernst Otto Fischer / Geoffrey Wilkinson
1974: Paul J. Flory
1975: John Cornforth / Vladimir Prelog
1976: William Lipscomb
1977: Ilya Prigogine
1978: Peter Mitchell
1979: Herbert C. Brown / Georg Wittig
1980: Paul Berg / Walter Gilbert / Frederick Sanger
1981: Kenichi Fukui / Roald Hoffmann
1982: Aaron Klug
1983: Henry Taube
1984: Bruce Merrifield
1985: Herbert A. Hauptman / Jerome Karle
1986: Dudley R. Herschbach / Yuan T. Lee / John C. Polanyi
1987: Donald J. Cram / Jean-Marie Lehn / Charles J. Pedersen
1988: Johann Deisenhofer / Robert Huber / Hartmut Michel
1989: Sidney Altman / Thomas R. Cech
1990: Elias James Corey
1991: Richard R. Ernst
1992: Rudolph A. Marcus
1993: Kary B. Mullis / Michael Smith
1994: George A. Olah
1995: Paul J. Crutzen / Mario J. Molina / F. Sherwood Rowland
1996: Robert F. Curl, Jr. / Sir Harold Kroto / Richard E. Smalley
1997: Paul D. Boyer / John E. Walker / Jens C. Skou
1998: Walter Kohn / John Pople
1999: Ahmed Zewail
2000: Alan Heeger / Alan G. MacDiarmid / Hideki Shirakawa
2001: William S. Knowles / Ryoji Noyori / K. Barry Sharpless
2002: John B. Fenn / Koichi Tanaka / Kurt Wüthrich
2003: Peter Agre / Roderick MacKinnon
2004: Aaron Ciechanover / Avram Hershko / Irwin Rose
2005: Robert Grubbs / Richard Schrock / Yves Chauvin
2006: Roger D. Kornberg
2007: Gerhard Ertl
2008: Osamu Shimomura / Martin Chalfie / Roger Y. Tsien




3. Physiology or medicine

1901: Emil von Behring
1902: Ronald Ross
1903: Niels Ryberg Finsen
1904: Ivan Pavlov
1905: Robert Koch
1906: Camillo Golgi / Santiago Ramón y Cajal
1907: Alphonse Laveran
1908: Ilya Mechnikov / Paul Ehrlich
1909: Theodor Kocher
1910: Albrecht Kossel
1911: Allvar Gullstrand
1912: Alexis Carrel
1913: Robert Bárány
1914: no award
1915: no award
1916: no award
1917: no award
1918: no award
1919: Jules Bordet
1920: August Krogh
1921: no award
1922: Archibald Vivian Hill / Otto Meyerhof
1923: Frederick G. Banting / John James Richard Macleod
1924: Willem Einthoven
1925: no award
1926: Johannes Fibiger
1927: Julius Wagner-Jauregg
1928: Charles Nicolle
1929: Christiaan Eijkman / Sir Frederick Hopkins
1930: Karl Landsteiner
1931: Otto Heinrich Warburg
1932: Sir Charles Sherrington / Edgar Adrian
1933: Thomas H. Morgan
1934: George H. Whipple / George R. Minot / William P. Murphy
1935: Hans Spemann
1936: Sir Henry Dale / Otto Loewi
1937: Albert Szent-Györgyi
1938: Corneille Heymans
1939: Gerhard Domagk
1940: no award
1941: no award
1942: no award
1943: Henrik Dam / Edward A. Doisy
1944: Joseph Erlanger / Herbert S. Gasser
1945: Sir Alexander Fleming / Ernst B. Chain / Sir Howard Florey
1946: Hermann J. Muller
1947: Carl Cori / Gerty Cori / Bernardo Houssay
1948: Paul Müller
1949: Walter Hess / Egas Moniz
1950: Edward C. Kendall / Tadeus Reichstein / Philip S. Hench
1951: Max Theiler
1952: Selman A. Waksman
1953: Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann
1954: John Franklin Enders / Thomas Huckle Weller / Frederick Chapman Robbins
1955: Hugo Theorell
1956: André F. Cournand / Werner Forssmann / Dickinson W. Richards
1957: Daniel Bovet
1958: George Beadle / Edward Tatum / Joshua Lederberg
1959: Severo Ochoa / Arthur Kornberg
1960: Frank Macfarlane Burnet / Peter Medawar
1961: Georg von Békésy
1962: Francis Crick / James D. Watson / Maurice Wilkins
1963: Sir John Eccles / Alan L. Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley
1964: Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen
1965: François Jacob / André Lwoff / Jacques Monod
1966: Peyton Rous / Charles B. Huggins
1967: Ragnar Granit / Haldan K. Hartline / George Wald
1968: Robert W. Holley / H. Gobind Khorana / Marshall W. Nirenberg
1969: Max Delbrück / Alfred D. Hershey / Salvador E. Luria
1970: Sir Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler / Julius Axelrod
1971: Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
1972: Gerald M. Edelman / Rodney R. Porter
1973: Karl von Frisch / Konrad Lorenz / Nikolaas Tinbergen
1974: Albert Claude / Christian de Duve / George E. Palade
1975: David Baltimore / Renato Dulbecco / Howard M. Temin
1976: Baruch S. Blumberg / D. Carleton Gajdusek
1977: Roger Guillemin / Andrew V. Schally / Rosalyn Yalow
1978: Werner Arber / Daniel Nathans / Hamilton O. Smith
1979: Allan M. Cormack / Godfrey N. Hounsfield
1980: Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset / George D. Snell
1981: Roger W. Sperry / David H. Hubel / Torsten N. Wiesel
1982: Sune K. Bergström / Bengt I. Samuelsson / John R. Vane
1983: Barbara McClintock
1984: Niels K. Jerne / Georges J.F. Köhler / César Milstein
1985: Michael S. Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein
1986: Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini
1987: Susumu Tonegawa
1988: James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion / George H. Hitchings
1989: J. Michael Bishop / Harold E. Varmus
1990: Joseph E. Murray / E. Donnall Thomas
1991: Erwin Neher / Bert Sakmann
1992: Edmond H. Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs
1993: Richard J. Roberts / Phillip A. Sharp
1994: Alfred G. Gilman / Martin Rodbell
1995: Edward B. Lewis / Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard / Eric F. Wieschaus
1996: Peter C. Doherty / Rolf M. Zinkernagel
1997: Stanley B. Prusiner
1998: Robert F. Furchgott / Louis J. Ignarro / Ferid Murad
1999: Günter Blobel
2000: Arvid Carlsson / Paul Greengard / Eric R. Kandel
2001: Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt / Sir Paul Nurse
2002: Sydney Brenner / H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston
2003: Paul C. Lauterbur / Peter Mansfield
2004: Richard Axel / Linda B. Buck
2005: Barry J. Marshall / J. Robin Warren
2006: Andrew Z. Fire / Craig C. Mello
2007: Mario Capecchi / Martin Evans / Oliver Smithies
2008: Harald zur Hausen / Françoise Barré-Sinoussi / Luc Montagnier




4. Literature

1901: Sully Prudhomme
1902: Theodor Mommsen
1903: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
1904: Frédéric Mistral / José Echegaray
1905: Henryk Sienkiewicz
1906: Giosuè Carducci
1907: Rudyard Kipling
1908: Rudolf Eucken
1909: Selma Lagerlöf
1910: Paul Heyse
1911: Maurice Maeterlinck
1912: Gerhart Hauptmann
1913: Rabindranath Tagore
1914: no award
1915: Romain Rolland
1916: Verner von Heidenstam
1917: Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan
1918: no award
1919: Carl Spitteler
1920: Knut Hamsun
1921: Anatole France
1922: Jacinto Benavente
1923: William Butler Yeats
1924: Władysław Reymont
1925: George Bernard Shaw
1926: Grazia Deledda
1927: Henri Bergson
1928: Sigrid Undset
1929: Thomas Mann
1930: Sinclair Lewis
1931: Erik Axel Karlfeldt
1932: John Galsworthy
1933: Ivan Bunin
1934: Luigi Pirandello
1935: no award
1936: Eugene O'Neill
1937: Roger Martin du Gard
1938: Pearl Buck
1939: Frans Eemil Sillanpää
1940: no award
1941: no award
1942: no award
1943: no award
1944: Johannes V. Jensen
1945: Gabriela Mistral
1946: Hermann Hesse
1947: André Gide
1948: T. S. Eliot
1949: William Faulkner
1950: Bertrand Russell
1951: Pär Lagerkvist
1952: François Mauriac
1953: Winston Churchill
1954: Ernest Hemingway
1955: Halldór Laxness
1956: Juan Ramón Jiménez
1957: Albert Camus
1958: Boris Pasternak
1959: Salvatore Quasimodo
1960: Saint-John Perse
1961: Ivo Andrić
1962: John Steinbeck
1963: Giorgos Seferis
1964: Jean-Paul Sartre (refused)[1]
1965: Mikhail Sholokhov
1966: Samuel Agnon / Nelly Sachs
1967: Miguel Ángel Asturias
1968: Yasunari Kawabata
1969: Samuel Beckett
1970: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
1971: Pablo Neruda
1972: Heinrich Böll
1973: Patrick White
1974: Eyvind Johnson / Harry Martinson
1975: Eugenio Montale
1976: Saul Bellow
1977: Vicente Aleixandre
1978: Isaac Bashevis Singer
1979: Odysseus Elytis
1980: Czesław Miłosz
1981: Elias Canetti
1982: Gabriel García Márquez
1983: William Golding
1984: Jaroslav Seifert
1985: Claude Simon
1986: Wole Soyinka
1987: Joseph Brodsky
1988: Naguib Mahfouz
1989: Camilo José Cela
1990: Octavio Paz
1991: Nadine Gordimer
1992: Derek Walcott
1993: Toni Morrison
1994: Kenzaburo Oe
1995: Seamus Heaney
1996: Wisława Szymborska
1997: Dario Fo
1998: José Saramago
1999: Günter Grass
2000: Gao Xingjian
2001: V. S. Naipaul
2002: Imre Kertész
2003: J. M. Coetzee
2004: Elfriede Jelinek
2005: Harold Pinter
2006: Orhan Pamuk
2007: Doris Lessing
2008: Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio




5. Peace

1901: Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy
1902: Élie Ducommun / Albert Gobat
1903: Randal Cremer
1904: Institute of International Law
1905: Bertha von Suttner
1906: Theodore Roosevelt
1907: Ernesto Teodoro Moneta / Louis Renault
1908: Klas Pontus Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer
1909: Auguste Beernaert / Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant
1910: Permanent International Peace Bureau
1911: Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried
1912: Elihu Root
1913: Henri La Fontaine
1914: no award
1915: no award
1916: no award
1917: International Committee of the Red Cross
1918: no award
1919: Woodrow Wilson
1920: Léon Bourgeois
1921: Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange
1922: Fridtjof Nansen
1923: no award
1924: no award
1925: Sir Austen Chamberlain / Charles G. Dawes
1926: Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann
1927: Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde
1928: no award
1929: Frank B. Kellogg
1930: Nathan Söderblom
1931: Jane Addams / Nicholas Murray Butler
1932: no award
1933: Sir Norman Angell
1934: Arthur Henderson
1935: Carl von Ossietzky
1936: Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1937: The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1938: Nansen International Office for Refugees
1939: no award
1940: no award
1941: no award
1942: no award
1943: no award
1944: International Committee of the Red Cross
1945: Cordell Hull
1946: Emily Greene Balch / John R. Mott
1947: Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee
1948: no award
1949: Lord Boyd Orr
1950: Ralph Bunche
1951: Léon Jouhaux
1952: Albert Schweitzer
1953: George C. Marshall
1954: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1955: no award
1956: no award
1957: Lester Bowles Pearson
1958: Georges Pire
1959: Philip Noel-Baker
1960: Albert Lutuli
1961: Dag Hammarskjöld (posthumous)
1962: Linus Pauling
1963: International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies
1964: Martin Luther King, Jr.
1965: United Nations Children's Fund
1966: no award
1967: no award
1968: René Cassin
1969: International Labour Organization
1970: Norman Borlaug
1971: Willy Brandt
1972: no award
1973: Henry Kissinger / Le Duc Tho (refused)
1974: Seán MacBride / Eisaku Sato
1975: Andrei Sakharov
1976: Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan
1977: Amnesty International
1978: Anwar al-Sadat / Menachem Begin
1979: Mother Teresa
1980: Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
1981: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1982: Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles
1983: Lech Wałęsa
1984: Desmond Tutu
1985: International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
1986: Elie Wiesel
1987: Óscar Arias
1988: United Nations Peacekeeping Forces
1989: Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama
1990: Mikhail Gorbachev
1991: Aung San Suu Kyi
1992: Rigoberta Menchú
1993: Nelson Mandela / F.W. de Klerk
1994: Yasser Arafat / Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin
1995: Joseph Rotblat / Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
1996: Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo / José Ramos-Horta
1997: International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams
1998: John Hume / David Trimble
1999: Médecins Sans Frontières
2000: Kim Dae-jung
2001: United Nations / Kofi Annan
2002: Jimmy Carter
2003: Shirin Ebadi
2004: Wangari Maathai
2005: International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei
2006: Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus
2007: Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
2008: Martti Ahtisaari




6. Economics

1969: Ragnar Frisch / Jan Tinbergen
1970: Paul A. Samuelson
1971: Simon Kuznets
1972: John Hicks / Kenneth J. Arrow
1973: Wassily Leontief
1974: Gunnar Myrdal / Friedrich August von Hayek
1975: Leonid Kantorovich / Tjalling C. Koopmans
1976: Milton Friedman
1977: Bertil Ohlin / James Edward Meade
1978: Herbert A. Simon
1979: Theodore William Schultz / Sir Arthur Lewis
1980: Lawrence R. Klein
1981: James Tobin
1982: George J. Stigler
1983: Gerard Debreu
1984: Richard Stone
1985: Franco Modigliani
1986: James McGill Buchanan, Jr.
1987: Robert M. Solow
1988: Maurice Allais
1989: Trygve Haavelmo
1990: Harry M. Markowitz / Merton H. Miller / William F. Sharpe
1991: Ronald H. Coase
1992: Gary S. Becker
1993: Robert W. Fogel / Douglass C. North
1994: John C. Harsanyi / John Forbes Nash, Jr. / Reinhard Selten
1995: Robert Lucas, Jr.
1996: James A. Mirrlees / William Vickrey
1997: Robert C. Merton / Myron S. Scholes
1998: Amartya Sen
1999: Robert A. Mundell
2000: James J. Heckman / Daniel L. McFadden
2001: George A. Akerlof / A. Michael Spence / Joseph E. Stiglitz
2002: Daniel Kahneman / Vernon L. Smith
2003: Robert F. Engle III / Clive W. J. Granger
2004: Finn E. Kydland / Edward C. Prescott
2005: Robert J. Aumann / Thomas C. Schelling
2006: Edmund S. Phelps
2007: Leonid Hurwicz / Eric S. Maskin / Roger B. Myerson

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