1 Uco Bank invites applications for recruitment of 1000 Clerks. Last date for online Registration : 02.06.2012. 2 Steel Authority of India Limited, Burnpur invites applications for 507 non-executive posts. Last Date : 21.06.2012. 3 Headquarter Southern Naval Command, Kochi requires 399 Safaiwalas, unskilled Labourers, Fireman Watchman, Mali, Peon etc. Last Date: 21 days after publication 4 Mahanadi Coalfields Limited requires 353 Jr. Overman, Mining Sirdar and Deputy Surveyor. Last Date : 11.06.2012 5 Assam Rifles invites applications for recruitment of 242 Tradesmen. Last Date : 19.06.2012. 6 Bipin Tripathi Kumaon Institute of Technology Dwarahat requires 44 Professors, Associate Professors and Assistant Professors. Last Date: 18.06.2012 7 17 Field Ammunitions Depot C/o 56 APO requires 44 Fireman and Mazdoors. Last Date : 21 days after publication. 8 Border Security Force requires 37 Para-medical Staff. Last Date : 30 days after publication. 9 Mata Sundari College for Women, New Delhi needs 25 Assistant Professors/Lecturers. Last Date : 20.06.2012 10 The Indian Navy invites applications from unmarried male candidate for enrolment as Sailors for Senior Secondary Recruits (SSR)-01/2013 Batch. Last Date : 22.06.2012. ** span>




  • Abdul Gaffar Khan
    He is known as the `Frontier Gandhi'. He was a nationalist Muslim leader of the North-West Frontier Province. He first started a militant organisation known as the `Red Shirt', and later on joined the non-violent Civil Disobedience Movement started by Mahatma Gandhi. He was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1987.

  • Abdul Rehman Tunku (1903-73)
    The Malaysian statesman who negotiated with the British for the independence of their country. He was the first P.M. of Malaysia.

  • Abul Fazl
    Son of Sheik Mubarak, was a faithful officer of Akbar and was for many years his confidential secretary and adviser. He wrote Ain-e-Akbari and Akbarnamah.

  • Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)
    was the 16th President of the U.S.A.; abolished slavery; re-elected President, 1864; assassinated in 1865 by John Wilkes Booth; A great advocate of democracy, believed in the equality of human race.

  • Ampere, Andre Marie (1775-1836)
    French mathematician and scientist; propounded the electrodynamic theory.

  • Ahalya Bai, the Rani
    She was the widowed daughter-in-law of Malhar Rao Holkar (1728-64). On the latter's death Ahalya Bai became the ruler of the vast Holkar state with its capital at Indore and administered the state with great success till her death in 1795.

  • Alauddin Khilji
    Sultan of Delhi (1296-1316), was the nephew and son-in-law of Jalaluddin Khilji, the founder of the Khilji dynasty of Delhi.

  • Akbar
    The third Mughal emperor (1556-1605) was the builder of the Mughal empire and dynasty in India. In 1581 he promulgated a new religion called the Din-e-Ilahi.

  • Al Biruni (born 973 A.D.)
    Arab scholar in the court of Mahmud Ghaznavi; he accompanied Mahmud to India during his expeditions and wrote an account of India.

  • Alexander, the Great (356-323 B.C.)
    King of Macedonia, one of the greatest generals and conquerors the world has ever produced; conquered the Thebans, the Persian Satraps, Syria, Phoenicia, cities along the Mediterranean in Egypt; founded Alexandria; invaded India in 326 B.C., died at Babylon.

  • Ambedkar, Dr. Bhimrao Ramji
    A prominent leader of the Schedu-led castes. He played a pivotal role in framing our constitution. Built up a party of the untouchables, became a member of the Constituent Assembly and piloted through it the Indian Constitution Act which declared India to be Republic. He also piloted the Hindu Code through Indian Legislature.

  • Amundsen, Captain Ronald (1872-1928)
    Norwegian explorer; succeeded in reaching the South Pole in 1911; flew over the North Pole in 1926, was lost in the Arctic in 1928.

  • Annie Besant, Mrs. (1846-1933)
    Irish lady, who admired India; actively participated in the Irish Home Rule Movement; a staunch supporter of India's freedom; Founder President of Theosophical Society; was elected President of Indian National Congress.

  • Archimedes (287-212 B.C.)
    Greek mathematician, inventor and scientist, discovered the principle of the lever and specific gravity; invented Archimedean screw.

  • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
    Famous Greek philosopher; disciple of Plato at Athens; tutor of Alexander the Great; founded a celebrated school of philosophy; wrote many treatises on various subjects; The Ethics and Poetics are among the best known of his surviving works.

  • Aryabhatta
    He was the famous astronomer and mathematician. He adorned the Court of Chandragupta Vikramaditya and credited with the invention of algebra.

  • Ashoka
    The third Emperor (C. 273 B.C.-232 B.C.) of the Maurya dynasty of Magadha founded by his grandfather Chandragupta Maurya (C. 322 B.C.-298 B.C.). His full name was Ashokavardhan. His personal religion, after the conquest of Kalinga became Buddhist.

  • Aurangzeb
    The sixth Mughal emperor (1659-1707) of India was the third son of Shah Jahan (1627-59).

  • Attlee, Lord (Clement Richard Attlee) (1883-1967)
    Served as an army officer throughout World War I : Parliamentary Leader of the Labour Party 1935-55; Deputy Prime Minister 1939-45, became Britian's Prime Minister in 1945. India achieved independence during his prime ministership.

  • Austen, Jane (1775-1817)
    Famous woman novelist of England; wrote Emma, Persuasion, Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, Mansfield Park.

  • Baden-Powell (1857-1941)
    Brilliant cavalry soldier; founded the Boy Scout Movement (1907) and Girl Guides (1910) to promote good citizenship; Scout of the World, 1921-1941. His birth centenary was celebrated throughout the world in 1957.

  • Baird, J.L. (1888-1948)
    Scottish television inventor.

  • Balzac, H. (1799-1850)
    A great French novelist; wrote more than eighty novels, to which he gave the covering title of La Comedie Humaine.

  • Beethoven, Ludwig Von (1770-1827)
    Born of a poor family at Bonn, greatest musician and composer, played very skilfully on violin and other instruments. Composed some of the greatest works between the years 1805 and 1809 and enjoyed the greatest musical fame; composed. Fidelio and the Pastoral and the Pastoral of Symphonies among others.

  • Bell, Alexander Graham (1847-1922)
    British scientist, invented telephone and photophone; took great interest in the education of deaf-mutes.

  • Bismarck, Prince Otto Von (1815-1898)
    Most prominent German statesman of the 19th century; more popularly known as The man of blood and iron; directed the destinies of his country up to 1888; founded the German Empire.

  • Bose, Subhas Chandra
    Popularly known as Netaji, was born on January 23, 1897, at Cuttack in Orissa, of respectable middle-class Bengali parents. He passed the Indian Civil Service Examination in 1920. He joined the Indian National Congress in 1921. In 1938 he was the President of the INC at its Haripura session and in 1939 he was elected president of its Tripura session. In 1943, he took charge of Indian National Army in Singapore. He died in a plane crash on August 18, 1945.

  • Boris Pasternak (1890-1960)
    Russian novelist and poet, who was awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958 for his great work Dr. Zhivago, but he had to decline the offer; died of cancer in 1960.

  • Braille, Louis (1809-1852) : French teacher of the blind; perfected his system of reading and writing for the blind, called Braille system.

  • Brutus, Marcus Jonius (85-42 B.C.)
    Roman Governor and one of the framers of Roman Civil Law; principal assassin of Julius Caesar.

  • Buck, Pearl S. (1892-1972)
    American woman novelist, won Nobel Prize for literature in 1938 and also Pulitzer Prize for her famous book good Earth, visited India in 1962.

  • Burke, Edmund (1729-1997)
    One of the greatest orators; entered Parliament, where he quickly made a name; an able debator; in 1790 appeared his Reflections on the French Revolution, he held very liberal views; took active part in the impeachment of Warren Hastings.

  • Butler, Samuel (1835-1902)
    English novelist, musician and scholar. Works-Erehwon, The Fair Haven, Life and Habit, The Way of All Flesh, etc.

  • Byron Lord (1788-1824)
    English romantic poet; was born lame; exercised great influence upon European thought; among his chief works are Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, The Prisoner of Chillon, The Vision of Judgement, Don Juan.

  • Caesar, Julius (101-44 B.C.)
    Roman General and benign ruler; invaded Gaul and Britain; assassinated at the age of 58 by Brutus.

  • Carlyle, Thomas (1795-1881)
    English essayist and historian of Victorian era; some of his works : French Revolution, Past and Present, Heroes and Hero Worship, Sartor Resartus.

  • Cartwright, Edmund (1743-1823)
    Invented the power-loom and also a wool-combing machine.

  • Cavendish, Henry (1731-1810)
    English chemist and physicist, made researches into the nature of gases, discovered hydrogen and chemical composition of water.

  • Cervantes, Saavedra Miguel de (1547-1616)
    Spanish novelist and dramatist; took part in many military expeditions, won world-wide Fauvists and Cubists.

  • Chandragrupta I
    He was the first king and founder of the imperial dynasty of the Guptas. He largely increased his power and territories by marrying a Lichchhavi princess named Kumara Devi. He set up his capital at Pataliputra. He founded an era known as the Gupta Era which runs from February 26, A. D. 320.

  • Chanakya
    Also known by the name of Vishnugupta and Kautilya. He was the Prime Minister of Chandragupta Maurya. He was the author of Arthashastra an authentic book on statecraft.

  • Chaplin, Sir Charles Spencer (1887-1977)
    Born in London; enjoyed world-wide fame as a film star comedian; settled in Switzerland, refused permission to return to Amercia in 1952 as he was suspected to be a communist; won the Lenin Peace prize in 1954. He was knighted in 1975.

  • Charles de Gaulle, General (1890-1970)
    Greatest French patriot; C-in-C of the free French forces for some time during World War II; strongly opposed to communism; provisional President when France was liberated, formed the Gaullist Party in the French Parliament; was appointed Prime Minister of France in June 1958, gave France a new Constitution; he was elected the first President of the Fifth Republic of France.

  • Chaucer, Geoffrey (1340-1400)
    Father of English poetry, his most famous work is Canterbury Tales which gives a very clear and graphic description of the life and characters of his time.

  • Churchill, Sir Winston (1877-1965)
    Politician, a soldier and writer, the greatest Englishman of all time; was a member of Parliament from 1900-1965; member of several Cabinets, Prime Minister and Minister of Defence 1940-45; the success of the Allies in World War II was largely due to his efforts; led the Opposition in 1945-51; became Prime Minister and Minister of Defence in the Conservative Government in 1951-55; won Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953. Famous works; The Gathering Storm, War Memoirs, The History of English Speaking People.

  • Cleopatra (69-30 B.C.)
    Egyptian Queen whose beauty fascinated Julius Caesar and with whom she went to Rome; she bore Caesar a son; after Caesar's death she married Antony, after whose death she committed suicide.

  • Coleridge, Samuel Taylor (1772-1834)
    English poet and philosopher; his poetic fame rests on The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Christabel and Kubla Khan.

  • Colt, Samuel (1814-1882)
    American inventor of revolver.

  • Columbus, Christopher (1446-1506)
    Italian navigator; set out on his voyage in 1492; he first discovered the Bahamas, Cuba and other West Indies Islands; it was in 1498 that he landed on the Low Lands of South America.

  • Confucius (551-479 B.C.)
    Chinese philosopher and sage; founder of the great religion of Confucianism, or the worship of superiors and ancestors, translated Chinese scriptures.

  • Cook, Captain James (1728-1779)
    English navigator; made many voyages round the world and made many discoveries; discovered the Sandwich Islands (Hawai Islands).

  • Copernicus (or Kappernick) Nicolaus (1473-1543)
    Polish astronomer, discovered the solar system. Quintcentenary of his birth was celebrated in 1973.

  • Cripps, Sir Stafford (1889-1952)
    British Labour statesman, came on a mission to India in 1942 and 1946; Chancellor of the Exchequer 1947-1950.

  • Cromwell, Oliver (1599-1658)
    Took a leading part in the Civil War of England 1542-49; defeated the Royalists; Lord Protector of England 1653-1658.

  • Curie, Prof. Pierrie (1859-1906)
    and Madame Marie Curie. Jointly discovered radium, shared the Nobel Prize for Physics, 1903.
    Curie, Joliot and Madame Irene Curie : Daughter of Prof. Pierre Curie, she made researches on artificial radioactivity and shared the Chemistry Nobel Prize with her husband Joliot Curie in 1935.

  • Curzon, Lord (1859-1925)
    English statesman and administrator, Viceroy of India from 1899-1905; Foreign Secretary, 1919-1924; the first partition of Bengal took place in his time.

  • Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917)
    A prominent businessman of Bombay with trading connections with England. He was elected president of the Indian National Congress at its second session held in Calcutta in 1886. He was the first Indian to be elected a member of the House of Commons in England on a ticket of Liberal Party. Twice again, in 1893 and in 1906, he was elected president of the INC. He died in 1917. He is known as the ``Grand old man of India''.

  • Dalton, John (1776-1844)
    English chemist and mathematician. His New System of Chemical Philosophy was published in 1810, founder of atomic theory.

  • Dante Ali Ghieri (1265-1321)
    Italian poet; wrote Divine Comedy.

  • Darwin, Chalres Robert (1809-1882)
    English naturalist; well-known for his `Theory of Evolution' or `The Law of Natural Selection'. His chief works are : Origin of Species, Descent of Man.

  • Davy, Sir Humphry (1778-1829)
    English chemist; invented Miner's Safety Lamp.

  • Dayanand Saraswati, Swami (1824-83)
    He was the founder of the Arya Samaj (1875). He was a great force in the promotion of Indian nationalism in the nineteenth century.

  • Dickens, Charles (1812-70)
    Eminent English novelist. His best-known works include Pickwick Papers, Oliver Twist, David Copperfield, Great Expectations and A Tale of two cities.

  • Diesel, Rudolf (1859-1913)
    German engineer, invented internal combustion engine which he patented in 1893.

  • Disney, Walter Elias (`Walt') (1901-1966)
    American film cartoonist; producer of Mickey Mouse, Silly Symphonies and Donald Duck; created a fairyland atmosphere at Disneyland, California. Disneyworld was created in Orlando (Florida).

  • Dostoievsky, F.M. (1821-1881)
    Russian novelist, author of Crime and Punishment, The Idiot, The Possessed.

  • Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan (1859-1930)
    English writer of detectives stories. Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.

  • Edison, Thomas Alva (1847-1931)
    American who invented and improved printing and telegraph system; made over 1,000 inventions including telephone transmitter, megaphone, phonograph, incandescent bulb, cinematograph, etc. First centenary of the incandescent bulb was celebrated in 1979.

  • Eiffel, Alexandre Gustave (1832-1923)
    French engineer, bridge and viaduct builder; authority on aerodynamics; Eiffel tower at Paris and Panama Canal Locks are among his notable works.

  • Einstein, Albert (1879-1955)
    American (German born) Mathematician and physicist, enjoys world fame for his `Theory of Relativity', revised his Field Theory, considered as the foremost scientist of the 20th century.

  • Eliot, George (1819-1880)
    Pen name of Marian Evan, famous English woman novelist; her most memorable novels are Adama Bede, Middle March, Daniel Deronda, The Mill on the Floss, Silas Marner.

  • Eliot, T.S. (1888-1965)
    One of the foremost lyrical poets of the 20th century. Born in U.S.A. became a naturalised British citizen in 1927; Works. Murder in the Cathedral, The Cocktail Party, Confidential Clerk, etc. Wasteland is one of his most famous poems which won him the Nobel Prize for literature in 1948.

  • Elizabeth I (c. 1933-1603)
    Ascended the throne of England in 1558 after the death of her sister Mary Tudor and ruled for 45 years; an enlightened ruler; England became a great power in her time.

  • Elizabeth II (b. 1926)
    Ascended the throne of England in February 1952 at the age of twenty-five on the death of her father George VI; married the Duke of Edinburgh, son of the Prince Andrew of Greece. They have four children. Prince Charles is the heir apparent; she toured the Commonwealth countries in 1954, Sweden in 1956; Portugal and France in 1957; U.S.A. and Canada in 1959; visited India early in 1961; New Zealand in 1974 and some of the African countries in 1979. The Queen celebrated the 25th anniversary of her rule in June 1977, the event coincided with the Commonwealth Prime Minister Conference. She visited USA in 1991.

  • Fahien
    Earliest Buddhist pilgrim from China who visited India during the time of Chandragupta II to collect Buddhist relics and sacred literature; he stayed in India from 401 to 410 A.D.

  • Faraday, Michael (1791-1867)
    English scientist in the field of electricity and magnetism; wrote a number of scientific books; discovered the Laws of Electrolysis.

  • Firdausi (930-1020)
    Epic poet of Persia; wrote Shahnama in verse which describes the history of Persia.

  • Fleming, Sir Alexander (1881-1955) : Bacteriologist and discoverer of penicillin. Awarded Nobel Prize for medicine jointly with Florey and Dr. E.B. Chain, 1945.

  • Ford, Henry (1863-1947)
    Founder of Ford Motor Co., became the World's leading industrialist and its second richest man; a great philanthropist.

  • Franklin, Benjamin (1706-1790)
    A great statesman and scientist of America, his invention of the lightning conductor brought him great fame.

  • Frederick II (The Great) (1712-1786)
    King of Prussia from 1740 to his death, greatly increased the power of his country by his able rule, he was also a great scholar.

  • Freud, Sigmund (1856-1939)
    Psychiatrist and founder of psychoanalysis; Professor of neurology, Vienna University, 1902-1928; was elected a member of the Royal Society, London in 1936.

  • Froebel F.W. August (1782-1852)
    German educational reformer who founded the Kindergarten system of education.

  • Gagarin Yuri (1934-68)
    First Russian cosmonaut who orbited the earth on 12th April, 1961 in Vostok-7; he was awarded highest honour by the Soviet Government; he was killed in an aircrash on 25th March, 1968.

  • Galileo (1564-1642)
    Italian scientist and astronomer. He was a professor of mathematics. He improved the telescope. He was the first man to see the satellites of Jupiter.

  • Galsworthy, John (1867-1933)
    English novelist and dramatist; awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1932 for Forsyte Saga.

  • Gama, Vasco da (1460-1524)
    Was a native of Portugal, discovered sea route to India in 1498 via the Cape of Good Hope.
    Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand├┐: Better known as Mahatma Gandhi, ``Bapu'' and ``Rashtrapita'' was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat. Became a barrister-at-law (1891) in England. Went to South Africa in 1893. Stayed there till 1914 for the cause of the emancipation of the Indians from the insulting life to which they had been so long been condemned to in South Africa. He launched Non-coope-ration movement (1919). Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) and Quit India Movement (1942). He was assassinated by Nathuram Godse on Jan. 30, 1948.

  • Gandhi, Indira : She was the first woman Prime Minister of India, born in 1917 at the home town of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and Kamla Nehru. She was a brave lady, choosen for the ``Best Woman personality of Asia'' of 20th century. She was assassinated in 1984 by her own bodyguards.

  • Barbo, Greta (Born 1905)
    Swedish film actress; the most charming and poetical actress on the screen during 1930-40, died in 1990.

  • Garibaldi, G. (1807-1882)
    Italian general and patriot of the 19th century, who liberated his country from foreign yoke.
    Gladstone, William (1809-98) : Was a renowned liberal statesman of Britain; became four times Prime Minister, his financial policy was accurate and successful; popularly known as the Grand Old Man.

  • Goethe, J.W. (1749-1832)
    German poet and dramatist. His famous works Faust and Wilhelm Meister.

  • Goldsmith, Oliver (1728-74)
    Irish poet, dramatist and novelist of the 18th century; author of the Vicar of Wakefield, The Deserted Village and She Stoops to Conquer. Died in debt and poverty.

  • Good Year, Charles (1800-1806)
    American inventor; invented the art of vulcanising rubber.

  • Haile Selassie (1891-1975)
    Emperor of Ethiopia 1930-36 and 1941-1974 when Ethiopia was liberated by the Allies. In March 1974, the troops and some civil servants mutinied, they were asking for higher wages. Later Haile Selassie was dethroned in a military coup. He died in 1975.

  • Hammarskjoeld, Dag (1905-1961) : Swedish diplomat, Secretary-General of the United nations 1953-61. He played a very prominent part in easing the tension between East and West. Awarded Nobel Peace Prize posthumously in 1961.

  • Harvey, William (1578-1657)
    English doctor and scientist, became Physician Extraordinary to James I; discovered the circulation of blood in 1616.

  • Hastings, Warren (1732-1818)
    First Governor-General for East India Company from 1773 to 1783. On his return to England, he was impeached on charges of excessive cruelty and corruption, but acquitted; the trial lasted for seven years and cost his $ 76,000.

  • Hegel, George Wilbelm Friedrich (1770-1831)
    German philosopher; a contemporary of Karl Marx and Engels, among his important works are : The Phenomenology of the Spirit, The Science of Logic, Philosophy of Right. His name is associated with the dialectic method of reasoning.

  • Hemingway, Ernest (1898-1961)
    An eminent American novelist, wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Sun Also Rises and Farewell to Arms, awarded Nobel Prize for The Old Man and the Sea.

  • Hertz, Heinrich (1857-1895)
    German physicist who demonstrated similarity between electro-magnetic light and heat waves; transformed sound waves into radio waves.

  • Hill, Sir Rowland (1795-1879)
    Introduced penny postal system.

  • Hitler, Adolf (1889-1945)
    Austrian by birth, adopted German nationality; leader of the Nazi Party; a man of iron will and ruthless determination; started the World War II; Dictator of Germany 1938-45. Author of Mein Kampf.

  • Hobbes, Thomas (1588-1679)
    English philosopher and political thinker; author of Leviathan; he favoured strong government and supported the supremacy of the state even over religion.

  • Ho Chi Minh (1892-1969)
    Organised the Viet Minh or League of Independence, the revolutionary nationalist party of Indo-China against French rule; led the struggle for Vietnam's independence during World War II; as President of North Vietnam he defied the USA for the unification of Vietnam; one of the greatest communist leaders; North Vietnam and South Vietnam were united in 1975. Saigon, which was the Capital of South Vietnam, has been re-named Ho Chi Minh City.

  • Homer (c. 700 B.C.)
    The most famous Greek epic poet who wrote two of the world's best epics, Iliad and Odyssey.

  • Howe, Elias (1819-1867)
    American who invented sewing machine.

  • Hieun Tsang
    Famous Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who came to India in the time of Harsha and wrote about his reign; he stayed in India from 629 to 644 A.D.

  • Hugo, Victor (1802-85)
    French novelist, dramatist and poet; author of world famous novels, Les Miserables and Notre Dame.

  • Hume, Allan Octavian
    Founder of the Indian National Congress in 1885, which later developed into a powerful political party.

  • Huxley, Aldous (1894-1963)
    English Author.

  • Ibn Batuta
    Arab traveller. He wrote about the details of the reign of Mohd. Bin Tughlak (1325-1361) of which he was an eye-witness.

  • Jeans, Sir James (1877-1946)
    British mathematician and astronomer; author of many popular works on astronomy as The Mysterious Universe and The Universe Around Us.

  • Jenghiz Khan or Chengiz Khan (1162-1227)
    Ferocious Mongol ruler; he overran the greater part of Asia bringing devastation wherever he went.

  • Jenner, Edward (1749-1823)
    English physician discovered vaccination against small pox. The world was declared small pox free in 1979. His discovery helped to lay the foundation of modern immunology.

  • Joan of Arc (1412-1431)
    ``Maid of Orleans'', peasant girl whose heroism inspired the French to drive the English out of Orleans and enabled Charles to become King; she was burnt alive as a heretic.

  • Johnson, Dr. Samuel (1709-1784)
    Writer, conversationalist and a literary figure of England in the 18th century; Rambler, The Idler, Lives of the Poets are his chief works; Boswell made him immortal by writing his bio-graphy.

  • Joule, James Prescott (1818-1889)
    One of the greatest of English physicists; made important researches in electro-magnetism and determined the mechanical equipment of heat.

  • Joyce, James (1882-1941) : Irish author. Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Ulysses are among his main works.

  • Kamal, Ataturk (1881-1938)
    First President of the Turkish Republic which he established in 1922 after driving the Greeks out of Turkey and deposing the Sultan; a fine soldier and statesman; maker of modern Turkey. He reduced the influence of religious leaders and secularised Turkey.

  • Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804)
    German philosopher, founder of the socalled critical philosophy; write Critique of Pure Reason.

  • Keats, John (1795-1821)
    English poet; one of the youngest poets of the Romantic Revival; famous for richness of imagination and beauty of thought; famous poems; Isabella, The Eve of St. Agnes, Ode to Nightingale, Ode on a Grecian Urn, Hyperion etc.

  • Kennedy, John F. (1917-1963)
    The most popular and youngest President (1961-63) of USA; the first Roman Catholic to be elected President; signed the partial nuclear Test Ban Treaty, established better relations with Russia; sponsored the Civil Rights Bill; his intervention in Congo brought about its unification, a man of vision and courage, was assassinated on 22nd Nov., 1963.

  • Kepler, Johann (1571-1630)
    German astronomer, who discovered the laws of planetary motion.

  • Khan, Ustad Bismillah
    He was an instrumentalist-Hindustani shehnai. He received Sangeet Natak Academi Award, Padma Shri (1961), Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan. In the year 2001, he had been awarded with the prestigious ``Bharat Ratna'' award.

  • Kipling, Rudyard (1865-1936)
    Born in India of English parents; famous short story writer, novelist and poet. The Jungle Book, Soldiers Three, Kim are among his famous works. First English author to be awarded Nobel Prize for literature.

  • Lao Tsze (B.C. 604 to 518)
    Chinese philosopher; founded Taoism, one of the oldest religions of China; The Path to Virtue is his best work.

  • Laplace, Pierre Simon, Marquis de (1749-1827)
    French astronomer and mathematician known as The Newton of France on account of his researches.

  • Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich (1870-1924)
    Russian revolutionary leader and statesman; leader of the Russian Revolution in 1917; liberated his country from the misrule of Czars. Head of the Soviet Government from 1917 to 1924. His first birth centenary was celebrated all over the world in 1970. Contributions of Lenin are now being slighted. Leningrad a city named after him has in 1991 been changed to St. Petersburg, its original wave.

  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
    Italian painter, one of the greatest geniuses, later he settled in France. He was a painter, scientist, sculptor, architect and engineer. Last Supper, Mona Lisa are his famous paintings.

  • Louis XVI (1754-93)
    King of France, married Marie Antoinette. His extravagant policies were responsible for the French Revolution; he and his queen were guillotined by the French Revolutionists.

  • Lutyens, Sir Edwin (1869-1944)
    Architect; designer of New Delhi, Rashtrapati Bhawan; British Embassy at Washington; President Royal Academy, 1938-43.

  • Macaulay, Lord (1800-59)
    English essayist, historian and politician, member of the Supreme Council, Calcutta, for five years; famous for his Minutes on Education when in 1833 he recommended the introduction of English as the medium of instruction in India; his best works are : (a) History of England, (b) Essays, (c) Lays of Ancient Rome.

  • Machiavelli, Niccolo (1439-1527)
    Italian diplomat and historian; The Prince is one of his chief works, it explains in a masterly way the art and science of government; he believed that end justifies the means.
    Magasthenes : Greek envoy at the court of Chandragupta Maurya. He has given a reliable account of the civil and military administration of the country under Chandragupta Maurya's rule.

  • Magellan, Ferdinand (1480-1521)
    Portuguese navigator and commander of the first expendition (1519) to sail round the world.
    Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766-1834) : English clergyman and political economist; in his famous Essay on the Principle of Population he suggest that marriage should be discouraged to limit the increase of population; Malthusian Theory of Population is that population increases faster than the means of support and unless checked by sexual restraint, is restricted only by famine, pestilence, war, etc.

  • Martin Luther King (1929-68) : U.S. negro civil rights leader who believed in Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of Satyagraha; it was due to his efforts that the U.S. Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964. He was shot dead on 4th April, 1968 at `Memphis' awarded posthumously Nehru Peace Prize, also won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.

  • Mao Tse-tung (1893-1976)
    Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party 1936-59, first Chairman of the Central Government of the People's Republic of China, 1949-59. The country made tremendous progress under his regime. He died in 1976. His widow Jiang Qing was awarded death penalty in January 1981 for working against the state. She commited suicide in June 1991.

  • Marconi, Guglleimo (1874-1937)
    Italian inventor; invented wireless telegraphy in 1896; succeeded in transmitting wireless message in 1902; awarded Nobel prize for Physics, 1909.

  • Marx, Karl (1818-83)
    German economist and socialist; took up cause of the labour classes; founded modern communist theory; author of Communist Manifesto (written in collaboration with his life long friend Friedrick Engels) and Das Kapital. He was born in Germany, worked for a major portion of his life in England and is buried in London.

  • Mazzini, Guiseppe (1805-72)
    An Italian patriot; driven out of Italy; went to England, came back and was appointed dictator of the Italian Republic in 1848; driven to England again; lived to see a unified Italy.

  • Mendel, Gregory Johann (1822-84)
    Austrian botanist; known for his laws of heredity.

  • Menuhin, Yahudi (b 1916)
    Born of Jewish parents in New York; great composer and musician; was awarded Nehru Peace Prize in 1970.

  • Michelangelo (1475-1564)
    Italian painter, sculpotor, architect and poet who did much to beautify the churches of Rome and Florence by his genius.

  • Milton, John (1608-74)
    English poet whose Paradise Lost is one of the most beautiful epics in English literature. Also wrote Paradise Regained, Comus, In Penseroso, Lycidas; after he became blind in 1652 he wrote `Paradise Lost' and a sonnet `On His Blindness'.

  • Mirabai : Mirabai (A.D. 1499-1547)
    was the daughter of a Mewar chief and the wife of Rana of Udaipur (Capital of Mewar). She was totally devoted to the deity, Krishna. She became a disciple of Ravidas, a low caste saint. She composed devotional songs and hymns in Braj bhasa mixed with Rajasthani in honour of Lord Krishna. She spent her last days in Mathura (Lord Krishna's birthplace) and Brindavan.

  • Mohammed (Prophet) (570-632)
    Founder of Islam<197>born in Mecca, fled from Mecca of Medina in 622 for the people of Mecca did not like his teachings and reforms; the year 622 is known as Hijri and denotes the commencement of Muslim era; conquered Mecca in 630.

  • Mozart, W.A. (1756-91)
    Austrian composer; showed musical talent while very young; musical composer at the Imperial Court of Vienna.

  • Mumtaz Mahal
    She was the daughter of Asaf Khan, the brother of Nurjahan, and the richest and most powerful noble during the reign of Jahangir. Her original name was Arjumand Bano Begum. She was married in 1612 to Jahangir's son Prince Khurram (later on Emperor Shah Jahan) and was given the name of Mumtaz Mahal.

  • Mussolini, Benito (1883-1945)
    Fascist dictator of Italy 1922-43; entered the war in 1940 on the side Hitler; was shot dead by partisans while trying to escape to Switzerland.

  • Naidu, Mrs. Sarojini (1879-1949)
    A most talented Indian lady, born of Bengali parents. She was a poet and orator who took a prominent part in Indian politics. She presided over the Cawnpore session of the Indian National Congress in 1925 and was the first lady to be appointed a state Governor in the Republic of India.

  • Napoleon I (Bonaparte) (1769-1821)
    Born in Corsica, one of the three greatest generals of the world; Commander-in-Chief of the French Army secured brilliant victories over Austrians and Russians, which made him practically the master of Europe; was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815; died in exile at St. Helena. The second centenary of his birth was celebrated in 1969 in France.

  • Nasser, Col. (1918-70)
    One of the leaders of coup d'etat in Egypt, was virtually the dictator of Egypt up to 1970, believed in the policy of non-alignment, a great leader of the Arab World and a staunch nationalist; nationalised the Suez Canal in July, 1956, visited India and joined the tripartite summit beginning in 1966. He has lost much of his popular fame when he suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Israel in 1967. He was responsible for bringing an end to the civil war in Jordan, died suddenly in September 1970, succeeded by Anwar Sadat.

  • Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727)
    English scientist; well-known for his work on the composition of white light, the calculus and laws of gravitation; Principia is his most important work; President, royal Society (1703-27).

  • Nicholas II (1868-1918)
    Last emperor and Czar of Russia. Japan defeated Russia (1904-05) during his time. Russia fared very badly in the 1914-18 war; Nicholas was ineffective and he lacked ability. Revolution broke out in 1917. He and his family were shot dead in July 1918.

  • Nightingale, Florence (1820-1910)
    British nurse and pioneer of hospital reform who enthusiastically served the British wounded soldiers in the Crimean War (1854-56) with a band of nurses; visited sick wards at night with lamp in hand, so known as The Lady with the Lamp.

  • Nobel, Dr. Alfred Bernhard (1833-96)
    Swedish inventor of dynamite, engineer and chemist, amassed huge wealth from the manufacture of explosives; he left a large fortune; out of these funds five prizes were given annually for outstanding work in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace; a sixth prize was instituted in 1969 for economic science.

  • Omar Khayam (1050-1123)
    Poet of Persia; he was also a great astronomer; his Rubaiyat has won universal fame; Edward Fitzgerald translated it into English in 1859.

  • Otto Hahn
    German scientist, who invented the atom bomb.

  • Pasteur, Louis (1822-95)
    French chemist and scientist; made researches in connection with hydrophobia, bacteriology, cholera, etc. founded Pasteur Institute in Paris.

  • Peary, Robert Edwin (1856-1920)
    American explorer who visited Arctic regions several times; finally succeeded in reaching the North Pole in 1909.

  • Peter The Great (1672-1725)
    Russian Emperor; won many victories; reorganised administration of Russia and introduced many beneficial reforms. Leningrad has been renamed St. Petersburg.

  • Picasso, Pablo Ruiz (b. 1881-1973)
    Spanish painter and sculptor; his work is found in public galleries and private collections all over the world; he founded Cubist school of painting. Spain celebrated Picasso's 100th birth anniversary in 1981. His civil war painting `Guernica' was brought from the USA to Spain and shown publicly for the first time in his own country during the celebrations.

  • Plato (427-347 B.C.)
    Greek philosopher; disciple of Socrates; wrote several works; the most important of his works are The Republic and Dialogues of Socrates.

  • Polo, Marco (1256-1323)
    Venetian traveller and explorer; travelled through many eastern countries and published the record of his journey.

  • Pope, Alexander (1688-1744)
    English poet; author of several books such as Rape of the Lock and Essay of Man.

  • Ptolemy (90-168 A.D.)
    Greek astronomer and mathematician; founded the ptolemic system which taught that the earth was stationary and the other bodies revolved around it.

  • Pythagoras (6th century B.C.)
    Greek philosopher and mathematician; took keen interest in astronomy and geometry.

  • Rasputin, G.Y. (1871-1916)
    Russian monk and fanatic; an enigmatic personality, to some he represented the devil and to others a saint; later he pretended to possess miraculous powers; wielded great influence over Czar Nicholas II of Russia and the Czarina; was murdered by Russian revolutionaries.

  • Reuter, Paul Julius Von (1821-1899)
    German pioneer of telegraphic press service; organised Reuter's International News Agency.

  • Roentgen, W.K. (1845-1923)
    German scientist who discovered the Rontgen rays in 1895; awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1901.

  • Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (1882-1945)
    American statesman; entered politics 1910; Governor of New York 1929-33; President of U.S.A. 1932-36 and 1939-40; he met the economic crisis of 1933 with a policy for a `New Deal'; elected President third time 1944; died 1945. (The first American to be elected President for more than two terms).

  • Ross Ronald (1857-1932)
    British Physician born in India; discovered the cause of malaria; got Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1912.

  • Ruskin, John (1819-1900)
    English social reformer and art critic; acknowledged to be one of the greatest thinkers of his time; his works gave inspiration to many great men, especially Mahatma Gandhi. Unto This Last is his great work.

  • Russell, Bertrand (1872-1970)
    Philosopher, pacifist and mathematician, visited many countries; received Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950; works Principia Mathematica, Marriage and Morals, History of Western Philosophy, Commonsense and Nuclear Warfare.

  • Rutherford, Lord (1871-1937)
    British physicist announced his nuclear theory of the atom and succeeded in splitting the atom; got Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1908.

  • Saadi (1184-1292)
    Persian poet; Gulistan, Bostan are his famous works.

  • Scott, Sir Walter (1771-1832)
    Scottish poet and novelist; his popular writings are : The Talisman, Kenilworth, Ivanhoe, The Lady of the Lake.

  • Shakespeare, William (1564-1616)
    Greatest dramatist and poet of England; was born at Stratford on Avon; Author of several plays such as Hamlet, Julius Caesar, Merchant of Venice, Romeo and Jullet, Macbeth, Othello, As You Like It, Cymbeline. His 400th birth anniversary was celebrated throughout the world 1964.

  • Shelley, P.B. (1792-1822)
    English poet; renowned for his daring and outspoken views; his works include Ode to the West Wind, The Skylark, Prometheus Unbound, etc.

  • Smith, Adam (1723-90)
    Scottish economist; author of Theory of Moral Sentiment and Wealth of Nations.

  • Socrates (470-390 B.C.)
    Greek philosopher; he had Plato and Xenophone as his pupils; he was sentenced to death for `corrupting youth of the country' died as nobly as he lived.

  • Sophocles (495-406 B.C.)
    Dramatist of Athens; author of many plays, Oedipus, Electra and Antigone.

  • Spenser, Edmund (1552-90)
    English poet of Elizabeth's reign; his best work; Faerie Queene.
    Stalin, Joseph (1879-1953) : Soviet dictator, played an important part in the Russian Revolution of 1917, became the outstanding leader of Russia after the death of Lenin in 1924; introduced in 1929 the famous Five Year Plant to build new Russia; General Secretary of the Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R., 1924-1941; died on March 5, 1953; succeeded by Georgi Malenkov; personality cult of Stalin has been denounced by the succeeding Russian leaders, including Mr. Gorbochev.

  • Sun Yat Sen, Dr. (1867-1925)
    First President of the Chinese Republic of which he was the founder, unified the whole of China, played a significant part in the revolution of 1911; founder of Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party).

  • Swift Jonathan (1667-1745)
    Irish writer of powerful satire, poems and discourses; his best-known works are : A Tale of a Tub, The Battle of the Books and Gulliver's Travels.

  • Schweitzer, Albert (1875-1965)
    German medical missionary, philosopher, musician, humanitarian and pacifist, who dedicated his life to the service of the Africans in Lambarene (Gabon Republic) and worked there for over fifty years; awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1952.

  • Tagore, Rabindranath (1861-1941)
    Famous Bengali poet, playwright, educationist, actor, humanist and philosopher, awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 for his great work Gitanjali; founded the Shanti Niketan University at Bolepur, famous works : Gitanjali, Gora, Wreck, Post Office, Chitra. His birth centenary celebrations were held all over the world in 1961.

  • Tamerlane or Timur (1336-1405)
    Also called Tamerling, i.e. Timur the Lame. A great warrior of Central Asia, conquered Turkistan, Persia and Syria; very cruel and blood-thirsty, was called the Scourge of the East, in his days.

  • Tennyson, Lord (1802-92)
    Poet Laureate of England from 1850 to 1892; author of The Princess, In Memoriam etc.

  • Thackeray, W.M. (1811-83)
    English novelist; author of Vanity Fair, The Newcomes, Henry Esmond etc.

  • Thant, U.
    A devout Buddhist from Burma, who was elected Secretary-General of the U.N. after the death of M. Dag Hammerskjoeld in 1961; he tackled various international issues like the West Irian, Cuba; he won the Nehru Peace Award for 1966.

  • Tito, Marshal (1892-1980)
    Yugoslav leader; visited India in 1954; approved the Panch Shila. He called the Neutral Nations Conference at Belgrade in Sept. 1961, a firm believer in non-alignment, visited India to attend the tripartite summit of Oct. 21-24, 1966. He represented his country at the non-aligned summits of 1964, 1970, 1973, 1976 and 1979. He was awarded the Nehru Prize for Peace and International Uncerstanding, visited India in Jan. 1974. He visited China in 1977, the visit resulted in restoring friendship between Yugoslavia and China, which was disrupted in the 1950's. He played a very important role during the Havana summit of the non-aligned nations in 1979.

  • Tolstoy, Count Leo (1828-1910)
    Russian writer and philosopher; author of Childhood, Tales from Sebastopol, War and Peace, Anna Karenina, The Cossacks.

  • Trotsky, Leon (1879-1940)
    A prominent leader of Bolshevist Revolution in Russia; War Minister in the Bolshevik Government, differed with the Communist Party, so he was dismissed from office, was assassinated in a hotel at Mexico in 1940.

  • Van Gogh, Vincent (1853-90)
    Distinguished Dutch painter.

  • Victoria (1819-1901)
    Queen of Great Britain and Ireland; she was the daughter of the Duke of Kent and ascended the throne in 1837 on the death of her uncle William VI; the Golden Jubilee of her accession was celebrated in 1887 and the Diamond Jubilee in 1897. Her's was the most glorious period of British history.

  • Virgil (70-19 B.C.)
    Roman poet; his most famous work is Aeneid.

  • Voltaire, F.M. (1694-1778)
    French philosopher and writer; author of Philosophical Letters, Discourse on Man, Essay on the Morals and Spirit of Nations, etc.

  • Washington, George (1732-99)
    C-in-C of the American army during the American War of Independence (1775-83); first President of the American Republic in 1770; re-elected President in 1793; refused election for a third time; it is said of him; `First in Peace, first in war and first in the hearts of his countrymen.'

  • Watt, James (1736-1819)
    Scottish engineer and inventor; discovered the principle of steam engine.

  • Watson Watt, Sir Robert (1892-1973)
    Scottish physicist who played a major part in the development of radar.

  • Weizmann, Chaim (1874-1952)
    The veteran Zionist leader, became provisional president of Israel in May, 1948 and was elected first President in 1949; a famous scientist.

  • Wilde, Oscar (1856-1900)
    Irish poet and dramatist; best known for his brilliant witty comedies, author of A Woman of No Importance. The Ideal Husband, De Profundis, The Importance of Being Earnest, etc.

  • Wilson, Woodrow (1856-1924)
    President of the United States (1913-21); brought America into the first world war on the side of the Allies; played an important part in the formation of the League of Nations but could not persuade his country to join the League; was awarded Nobel Prize for Peace.

  • Wordsworth, William
    (1770-1850) : English poet; is unrivalled as an interpreter of nature in her many moods; was Poet Laureate in 1843; some of his most famous poetical works are Lyrical Ballads, Lucy, The Prelude, To the Cuckoo, The Green Linnet and Recluse.

  • Xerxes (Circa 519-465 B.C.)
    King of Persia and a great commander; son of the First Darius. He defeated the Spartans at Thermopylae, but his fleet was overcome at Salamis; he was assassinated.

  • Zola, Emile (1840-1902)
    French novelist; author of L'Assommoir and Nana.

  • Zoroaster
    Also known as Zarathustra, Persian founder of the Zartushti religion; lived about the 6th century BC, his teachings are to be found in Zend-a-vesta.


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